OCTC-Micro- test 1

what is a pathogen?

a microorganism capable of causing disease

what is etiology?
the study of the cause of disease
whas immunology?

the study of the body’s specific defenses against pathogens

(think receptors on cell membranes!)

what is chemotherapy?

treatment of disease by using chemical substances such as synthetic drugs or antibiotics

what is molecular biology?

studies how genetic information is carried in molecules of DNA and how DNA directs synthesis of proteins


what is biotechnology?

manipulation of organisms or their
components to make useful products.








examples of biotechnology?

Can use the spider protein to make bullet proof vest.


Can use human insulin produced by E. coli to treat diabetes


Salt water microbe produces substance that is binding (postage stamp size holds 70 tons)

what is a eukaryote?

cells with a nuclear membrane

what are some examples of Eukaryotes?

plants, animals, fungi, protozoa, algae

what are some examples of Prokaryotes?
Bacteria and Archaea
what is a prokaryote?

cells that lack a nuclear membrane

Fungi are?
Fungi genome?
Do fungi have cell walls?
yes, within chitin (outside of cell membrane)
Fungi are grouped as?
mold or yeast
The microbes commonly known as __________ are single-celled eukaryotes that are generally motile.
Protozoa genome?
Algae are?
plant like eukaryotes
Algae genome is?
Algae carry out what?
Helminths are?
Examples of Helminths?

worms, macroscopic, eggs are microscopic

what are the 2 kinds of prokaryotes?
bacteria and archaea
bacteria cell walls contains?

cell walls contain peptidoglycan; some (few) bacteria lack cell walls; most bacteria are beneficial; some are harmful to humans

archaea contains?

NO peptidoglycanin cell wall; harmless to humans

Viruses consist of?

Consist of a nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) surrounded by protein coat: NEVER both

Viruses are classified as?
neither prokaryote or eukaryote
Genome for Eukaryotic cells?
genome for prokaryotic cells?

Antoni van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) did what?

Known as the father of bacteriology and protozoology

Abiogenesis is was founded by?
Aristotle; proposed spontaneous generation
what is Abiogenesis ?

Living things can arise from nonliving matter by some Vital Force

1668 = Francesco Redi Proposed what?
what is biogenesis?
= living things arise  only from other living things of the same kind
John Needham did what?
reinforced idea of abiogenesis; experiment with infusion broth
Lazzaro Spallanzani did what?

-denied abiogenesis

-Believed in biogenesis

-disproed Needham

-“life begets life”

Louis Pasteurs did what?
disproved spontaneous generation
who founded fermentation?
Louis Pasteurs
who founded pasterization?
Louis Pasteurs
who began field of industrial microbiology and biotechnology?
Louis Pasteurs
Who is Robert Koch?
he founded microbes that caused anthras, TB, cholera
who founded Koch Postulates?
Robert Koch
who was father of taxonomy?
Carolus Linnaeus
who published system naturae?
Carolus Linnaeus
Who began the field of immunology?
Edward Jenner
who introduced the vaccination procedure for smallpox?
Edward Jenner
what was used to produce smallpox vaccine?
dried cowpox
Ignaz Semmelweis introduced what?
Handwashing to prevent nosocomial infections
John Snow is father of?
Joseph Lister
Began trend to modern aseptic techniques
Joseph Lister introduced?
Hans Christian Gram developed?
staining technique
who was the founder of nursing?
Florence Nightingale
Florence Nightingale did what?
introduced antiseptic techniques in nursing practices
Alex Flemming discovered?


(pharmaceutical microbiology)

Gerhard Domagk discovered?
sulfa drugs
Paul Ehrlich developed drug to treat?
syphilis “magic bullet”
who started field of chemotherapy?
Paul Ehrlich
what are the 5 Eukaryotic cells?






what are the 5 kingdoms created by Whittacker?






what are the 3 domains discovered by Woese?




Archae’s characteristics?

no peptidoglycan

can live in high temps/ high pressures

most are not harmful


what microbial process makes up ethanol form sugar? (beer, wine, etc)
fermentation (founded by Louis Pasteurs)
What does Pastuerization do?
Heating a substance just enough to kill the bacteria
what is industrial microbiology or biotechnology?

Industrial Microbiology or Biotechnology is the use of microbes to intentionally manufacture products

pasteur’s Experiments Disproved Spontaneous generation… what was the process?


-Pasteur showed that flasks left open in the air after boiling would be contaminated.


-If the boiled flask were sealed, they remained free of microbes.


Pasteur used flask with long necks bent into S-shape.


-Air was allowed into the flask but airborne microbes would be trapped in the neck.


-the flask remained sterile.




proteins that help chemical reactions to occure are called?
Characteristics of a viruses are?


consist of a nucleic acid surrounded by a protein (DNA/RNA never both)

can only be seen by a electron microscope

can only reproduce after invading a host cell

obligatory parasites

neither prokaryotic or eukaryotic

what is a obligatory parasites?
a virus
what can only reproduce after invading a host cell?
a virus
Koch Pastulates is to?

determine what microbe causes a particular disease.




Koch’s Postulates states what?


-The microorganism must be present in the diseased animal and not present in the healthy animal

– Must be able to cultivate the microorganism away from the animal in a pure culture.






Systema Naturae is?

-standardized system for naming and classifying organisms

-founded by Carolus Linnaeus

Chemotherapy is?

Branch of medical microbiology in which chemicals are studied for their potential to destroy pathogenic microorganisms.

what is bioremediation?

use of living bacteria, fungi, and algae to detoxify polluted environments

what are the processes of life?


1.Growth and development = increase in size

2. Reproduction and heredity (genome) = increase in number

3. Responsiveness and movement = ability to react to environmental stimuli

4. Metabolism = controlled chemical reactions

Put the following events in the history of microbiology in order, from the earliest to the latest:
I. Leeuwenhoek observes microbes using a microscope.
II. Pasteur disproves spontaneous generation.
III. Woese discovers the archaea.
IV. Fracastoro proposes that “germs” cause disease.
V. Ehrlich discovers the first “magic bullet.”

 IV, I, II, V, III

IV. Fracastoro proposes that “germs” cause disease.

I. Leeuwenhoek observes microbes using a microscope.

II. Pasteur disproves spontaneous generation.

V. Ehrlich discovers the first “magic bullet.”

III. Woese discovers the archaea.


Fracastoro proposes that ?
Fracastoro proposes that “germs” cause disease.
The work of Lister, Nightingale, and Semmelweis all contributed to controlling infectious disease by
developing methods for reducing nosocomial infections.
who was involved in improving public health in the 19th century?
The first true vaccine provided protection from disease caused by a?
what are the components of the bacterial cell wall?
 lipoteichoic acids
  mycolic acid
what is unique to archaea?
Bacterial cell walls that are resistant to drying contain?
what bacterial cell structures play a important role in the creation of biofilms?
fimbriae and glycocalyces
where do biofilms form?



Infected tissues

Plastic catheters


Metal pacemakers

Industrial pipelines.

Biofilms are?

Biofilms are a complex community of microbes that form a protective adhesive matrix that attaches microbes to surfaces.

how are biofilms formed?
Capsules allow the bacteria to attach to solid surfaces and form biofilms
Formation of a biofilm may contribute to ?
bacteria’s ability to cause disease.
what are the characteristics of life?
 Viruses have some, but not all, of the characteristics of living things.
  Organisms may not exhibit all of the characteristics of life at all times.
  Reproduction can occur asexually or sexually in living things.
  Living things store metabolic energy in the form of chemicals such as ATP.
Lysosomes result from ?
the endocytosis of food particles by eukaryotic cells.
Lipid-soluble molecules would be expected to cross the cytoplasmic membrane by which processes?
ATP is expended in what processes?
both active transport and group translocation
components of a bacterial cell wall
A) peptidoglycan
B) lipoteichoic acids
C) mycolic acid
D) tetrapeptide
A(n) __________ is a type of glycocalyx that is firmly attached to the cell.
Characteristics of OSMOSIS?

 A) Osmosis requires a selectively permeable membrane.
 C) Cells placed in hypotonic solutions will gain water.
D) Crenation results when cells are placed in a hypertonic solution.
E) Osmosis stops when the system reaches equilibrium.
Endospores survive a variety of harsh conditions in part because of the presence of
dipicolinic acid
The glycocalyx of a eukaryotic cell performs what functions?

  protection against dehydration.
  anchoring cells to each other.
  cellular recognition and communication.
  strengthening the cell surface.
What is associated with the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell?

 A) chromatin
 C) histones
D) nucleoplasm
E) nucleolus
The ER is?
The ER is a transport system within the cytoplasm.
Chloroplasts differ from mitochondria in that they have
light-harvesting pigments.
which disease was first proven to be bacterial in origin?
Membrane rafts are found in the cytoplasmic membranes of
Some __________ use group translocation as a means of transport.
The cell walls of __________ contain peptidoglycan.
The cytoplasmic membranes of __________ contain lipids.
all prokaryotes
__________ may have flagella.
Archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes
Which of the following may have cell walls containing teichoic acids?
gram positive bacteria
The cell walls of __________ contain tetrapeptides.
both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria
Which external structures containing a periplasmic space?
gram negative bacteria
what are the functions of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton
A) anchors organelles
B) gives shape to the cell
 D) performs endocytosis
E) aids in contraction of the cell
what is true concerning the endosymbiotic theory

B) Mitochondria and chloroplasts can divide independently of the cell.
C) Mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own DNA and ribosomes.
D) The cristae of mitochondria evolved from the cytoplasmic membrane of prokaryotes.
E) The endosymbiotic theory is not universally accepted.
endocytosis produces a structure called?
Endocytosis produces a structure called a food vesicle

When cells are placed in a hypertonic solution, they lose water and shrivel. This process is called

The glycocalyx of a eukaryotic cell does what?

 A) protection against dehydration.
B) anchoring cells to each other.
C) cellular recognition and communication.
D) transfer of genetic material between cells.
A structural molecule found in eukaryotic cytoskeletons, flagella, cilia, and centrioles is __________.
Short, hairlike structures used only by eukaryotic cells for movement are called
what are components of bacterial flagella?
A) flagellin
B) basal body
 D) filament
E) hook


What plays an important role in the creation of biofilms?


both fimbriae and glycocalyces
Organisms that can grow with or without oxygen present are
either facultative anaerobes or aerotolerant anaerobes.
An aquatic microbe that can grow only at the surface of the water is probably ?
a phototroph
A(n) __________ organism is one that requires oxygen for growth.
obligate aerobic
Obligate anaerobes may be cultured in the laboratory
in a reducing medium
A microbe that grows only at the bottom of a tube of thioglycollate medium is probably a(n)
obligate anaerobe
__________ are complex communities of various types of microbes that adhere to surfaces.
what is a cell?

(biology) the basic structural and functional unit of all organisms

4 general principles of microscopy

wavelength, magnification, resolution, contrast

Acid fast stains do what?

  : Stains cell of mycobacterium and Norcadia.

These cell have large amount of lipid in cells walls, do not readily stain with gram stain

Carl Woese
Eukarya, Bacteria, and Archaea
Cells in the three domains also differ with respect to many other characteristics
Endospore Stain?
Heat is used to drive the primary stain, malachite green, into the endospore. Decolorized with water and counterstained with safranin
types of bright field microscopes?
Simple and comound
types of electon microscopes
two types of phase microscopes
phase contrast
differential interference contrast
Leeuwenhoek used simple microscope to observe?
proposed a widely accepted taxonomic approach based on five kingdoms: Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protista, and Prokaryotae
What is a sex pilus?
long hollow tubules composed of protein called pilin
microscopy refers to?
the use of light or electrons to magnify objects
magnification occurs
when a beam of light refracts or bends a it passes thru a convex lens
resolution is the ability?
to distinguish between two objects that are very close together
Electron microscope
uses electron beams that have much smaller wavelength than visible light
the scanning electron microscope?
can reslove microbes and magnify them 100,000 times more than a light or brightfield microscope that we use in our labs

Differential Interference Contrast Microscopes


Darker = (Out of phase)

Nomarski microscopes 

*gives a detailed view of unstained, live specimens by manipulating light which makes the specimen appears as 3D.


light microscopes
light waves that are in phase are aligned, crest to crest and trough to trough

phase- contrast microscopes


Brighter= (in phase)


used to examine living microbes or specimens

(cell movement with cilia, flagella, or phagocytosis)

what organism is responsible for generating the early earths atmostphere?
photosynthetic archaea
what is the most common group of bacteria associated with humans and animals?

Fluorescent microscopes

(Ultra Violet radiation)

UV light increases resolution b/c it has a shorter wavelength than visible light


Used as accurate and a quick diagnostic tool for detecting pathogens

bacteria form?
Protozoa form?

Transmission Electron Microscope


thin, transverse sections (slice)

Examine fine details of internal cell structures

examine number of layers of the cells envelope


what is a simple microscope?

one lens=

magnifying glass

what is a compound microscope?

have at least 2 lens

(objective lens and ocular lens)

What is the illuminator on the microscope?
lamp located in base of microscope that gives off visible light to illuminate specimen
confocal microscope?

also uses fluorescent dyes, uses UV laser, resolution increased by 40%, computer constructs 3d image

staining does what?

increases contrast by coloring specimens with stains/dyes

Microbilogical stains are?

microbilogical stains
usually composed of cation and anion one is colored

differential stains?

differential stain
uses more than on dye so different cells, chemicals, or structures can be distinguished

Acid Fast Stains?

Acid Fast Stain
Stains cell of mycobacterium and Norcadia.

These cell have large amount of lipid in cells walls, do not readily stain with gram stain

Characteristics of endospores?

dormant, highly resistant cells that form inside the cytoplasm of a bacteria and can survive environmental extremes such as heat, dessication, and harmful chemicals

staining for Electron Microscope?

Staining for Electron Microscope

Stains for TEM are not colored dyes but instead chemicals containing atoms of heavy metals such as lead, osmium, tungsten, and uranium which absorb electrons

What is a cell membrane?

also called plasma membrane, a selectively permeable lipoprotein bilayer that forms the boundary between a bacterial cell’s cytoplasm and its environment

What is a cell nucleus?

cell nucleus
(Control Center)
an organelle bound by its own double membrane and containing chromosomes, the genetic information for cell protein synthesis and cell replication; responsible for growth and reproduction!

what is a cell wall?

cell wall
outer layer of most bacterial, plants, algal, and fungi that maintains the shape of the cell and helps protect it

what is chemotaxis?

a nonrandom movement of an organism toward or away from a chemical

what is chloroplast?

An organelle containing chlorophyll for photosynthesis found in eukaryotic cells

what is chromatin?

long strands of DNA found in the eukaryotic cell nucleus; condense to form chromosomes

what is cytoplasm?

semifuild substance inside a cell, excluding the nucleus in eukaryotic cells

what is a cytoskeleton?

a network of fibers that holds the cell together, helps the cell to keep its shape, and aids in movement in eukaryotic cells

what is active transport?

active transport
the movement of chemical substances, usually across the cell membrane, against a concentration gradient; requires cells to use energy (ATP)

what does the endosymbiotic theory state?

endosymbiotic theory
a theory that states that certain kinds of prokaryotes began living inside of larger cells and evolved into the organelles of modern-day eukaryotes, like the mitochondria

the transport of substances through a cell membrane along a concentration gradient with the aid of carrier proteins is called what?

facilitated diffusion

what is the external to the cell wall; layer of polysaccharides and peptides that keep cells from drying out?

external to the cell wall; layer of polysaccharides and peptides that keep cells from drying out.

stack of membranes in the cell that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum

golgi apparatus
stack of membranes in the cell that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum

Toxic substance found in the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria

lipid A
Toxic substance found in the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria

in eukaryotic cells, the cell organelle that is surrounded by two membranes and that is the site of cellular respiration, which produces ATP, what is this?


what is a double membrane perforated with pores that control the flow of materials in and out of the nucleus in eukaryotic cells

nuclear envelope
double membrane perforated with pores that control the flow of materials in and out of the nucleus in eukaryotic cells

Also known as a (nucleoid)… Central location of DNA, RNA, and some proteins in bacteria; not a true nucleus, what is this?

nuclear region
(nucleoid) Central location of DNA, RNA, and some proteins in bacteria; not a true nucleus

The organelle where ribosomes are made, synthesized and partially assembled, located in the nucleus in eukaryotic cells?


what is a specialized structure that performs important cellular functions within a eukaryotic cell?

specialized structure that performs important cellular functions within a eukaryotic cell

The membrane at the boundary of every cell that acts as a selective barrier, thereby regulating the cell’s chemical composition?

plasma membrane

cell lacking a nucleus and most other organelles, includes all bacteria

prokaryotic cell

what is a cell organelle composed of RNA and protein; the site of protein synthesis?


the net movement of molecules or ions from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration, does not require energy from a cell

simple diffusion

A thin protective structure loosely bound to the cell wall that protects the cell against drying, helps trap nutrients, and sometimes binds cells together

slime layer

Gram negative are less or more susceptible to antibiotics than gram positive organisms?
Are less susceptible to antibiotics than gram positive organisms

what uses oxygen and detoxifies it
must have oxygen?


3 categories of microbes that uses or doesn’t use oxygen
aerobes, anaerobes, aerotolerant
what does not use oxygen but can detoxify it
(oral and intestinal bacteria), not harmed by oxygen

    can neither use oxygen nor detoxify it
(oral and intestinal bacteria) die with oxygen


what is a self-feeder and uses inorganic O2 as its carbon source
what organism must obtain its carbon in an organic form
what is a log phase; cells reach maximum rate of cell divison
expontential growth
____________ are “refrigerator-spoilers” (temp. optimum = 20 degrees C) ex. bread molds
An organism that gets its energy from light and carbon from CO2 is?
An organism that uses glucose for both carbon and energy is classified?
This is used to encourage the growth of a particular microorganism in a mixed culture?
enrichment culture
is much like a stem cell = unspecialized cell
can undergo cell division for long periods of time;
can differentiate into specialized cells with specific function
progenitor cell
what are the processes that define life?
Growth, Reproduction, responsiveness, Metabolism, cellular structure
can feed on inorganic molecules (metals)

lives with or without oxygen
prefers oxygen

facultative anaerobes
growth and development refer to what?
increase in size
structures within Eukaryote cytoplasm?





golgi apparatus

You don’t heat fix with what kind of stain ?

Negative Stain

Gram positive bacteria tends to produce?

exotoxins, they are more susceptible to penicillins and digestions by lysozyme

what is the apparent increase in size of an object


what is the bacteria of workhorse of biotechnology?
E. Coli
what is the fungus workhorse of biotechnology?

bakers yeast

“Saccharomyces cerevisiae”

Microbes that can live in the presence or absence of oxygen are called
facultative anaerobes
what scientists provided evidence in favor of the concept of spontaneous generation?
Paul Ehrlich used chemotherapy to treat
The method of obtaining isolated cultures that utilizes surface area to dilute specimens is called
the streak plate technique
A colony-forming unit is the number of cells
that produces one colony
1st vaccine was invented by?
Edward Jenner
the 1st vaccone was?
Smallpox made from dried cowpox
Girolamo francastoro did what?

Founded the catagion theory

-germs cause disease


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