OCTC micro chapter 1

Microbiology n1

The study of something we cant see.

Organisms too small to be seen without a microscope.

 

 

Central Dogma

DNA-RNA-Protein

(everything in biology tied back to this)

Miroorganisms

(Microbes)

“Beasties”pg3

Animalcules (animals-molecules)

Discovered by Antoni van Leeuwenhoek(1632-1723)

Too small to be seen w/o a microscope.

Genotype
Genetic makeup of recombinant DNA
Phenotype
What recombinant DNA looks like. Its physical aspect.
Gene
A segment of DNA that codes for a single protein.
Taxonomic system pg3

Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus(1707-1778).

System for naming plants and animals


Grouping similar organisms together.

Six basic categories for microorganisms pg3

fungi,

protozoa

algae

bacteria

archaea

small multicellular animals

The only type of microbe not described by Leeuwenhoek? pg3

Viruses

(Which are too small to be seen without and (electron) microscope.)

Flagellar arrangements pg61

monotrichous- one flagella

amphitrichous- flagella on each end

peritrichous flagella-all the way around

polar flagella- tuft (like a pony tail)

Fungi pg3
are organisms whose cells are eukaryotic.
Cause disease to humans
Relatively few microbes compared to the amount of microbes out there (%)’s
Fungi;pg3
Different from plants because they obtain their food from other organisms(rather than making it for themselves);

Prokaryotes

(pro meaning “before”)

Cells that lack a nuclear membrane (non clear)

(Archaea)

Eukaryotes

Cells with a nuclear membrane (see the membrane)

(ex. plants, animals, fungi, protozoa)

P.E.A.S.
possible esturary-associated syndrome
Pathogen
a microorganism capable of causing disease.

Protozoa

(Greek for first animals)pg 4

Single cell eukaryotes

similar to animals in nutrition and cell structure

;

Etiology
study of the cause of disease
Epidemiology
Study of the occurrence, distribution and spread of disease in humans.
Immunology
study of the body’s specific defenses against pathogens.
Molecular Biology
how genetic information is carried in molecules of DNA and how DNA directs synthesis of proteins.
Chemotherapy
treatment of disease by using chemical substances such as synthetic drugs or antibiotics.
Synthetic drugs
prepared in the laboratory with chemicals.
antibiotics
are produced naturally by bacteria and fungi to act against microbes.
Recombinant DNA molecule
containing DNA from two different sources
Recombinant DNA

recombination or reshuffling of genes occurs naturally

(transformation, transduction, conjugation)

genetic engineering 
use of bacterial and microbial genetics to isolate, manipulate, recombine and express genes.
biotechnology
commercial application of genetic engineering using living organisms

LPS

(Lipopolysaccharides layer)

Lipid A causes 

fever, inflammation, Vasodilation that can lead to shock, 

1 Lag

2 Log

3 Stationary (K)

4 Death

K= carry capacity

ID

(Infectious Dose)

Minimum number of cells to infect a human being to contract a disease.
PSYCHROPHILES
REQUIRE TEMPS BELOW 20° C
MESOPHILES
GROW BEST AT TEMPS RANGING BETWEEEN 20° C AND 40° C
THERMOPHILES
REQUIRES TEMPS ABOVE 45° C
HYPERTHERMOPHILES
REQUIRES TEMPS ABOVE 80° C

ANTONI DE LEEUWENHOEK

(1632-1723)

DUTCH TAILOR WHO INVENTED MICROSCOPES AND DEVELOPED A SYSTEM FOR NAMING PLANTS AND ANIMALS.
ALBERT NEISSER

GONORRHEA

(Neisseria gonorrheae)

 

bacterium

EDWIN KLEBS

(1883)

DIPTHERIA

(Corynebacterium diphtheriae)

 

bacterium

Theodore Escherich

(1884)

Travellers diarrhea, Bladder infection

(Escherichia coli)

 

bacterium

 

Dave Bruce

(1887)

Undulant fever (brucellosis)

(Brucella melitensis)

 

bacterium

Kiyoshi Shiga

(1898)

Shigellosis (severe diarrhea)

(Shigella dysenteria)

 

bacterium

Walter Reed 

(1900)

Yellow fever

(Flavivirus yellow fever virus)

Koch

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