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1) What is unique about the Hepadnaviridae family of virusesA) They contain RNA.
B) They contain double-stranded RNA.
C) They contain single-stranded DNA.
D) They contain double-stranded DNA.
E) They contain both single-stranded DNA and double-stranded DNA.
E) They contain both single-stranded DNA and double-stranded DNA.
Which of the following characteristics is(are) common to Poxviridae, Herpesviridae, and HepadnaviridaeA) double-stranded DNA in the virion
B) a complex capsid
C) the presence of an envelope
D) double-stranded DNA in the virion with a complex capsid
E) double-stranded DNA in the virion and the presence of an envelope
E) double-stranded DNA in the virion and the presence of an envelope
Which among the following are the largest DNA virusesA) Herpesviridae
B) Papillomaviridae
C) Poxviridae
D) Adenoviridae
E) Polyomaviridae
C) Poxviridae
Which of the following lesions is a hard, raised soreA) macule
B) papule
C) vesicle
D) pustule
E) pox
B) papule
High fever, headache, extreme fatigue, and a rash on the face that progresses to fluid- and pus-filled sores before crusting over and healing are signs and symptoms consistent with infection with
A) adenovirus.
B) herpesvirus.
C) papillomavirus.
D) polyomavirus.
E) poxvirus.
E) poxvirus.
Which of the following statements is true of both molluscum contagiosum and smallpoxA) A genital form of the disease exists.
B) A vaccine is available.
C) The causative agent is in the family Poxviridae.
D) Nodules are removed by freezing.
E) It has a morality rate of 20%.
C) The causative agent is in the family Poxviridae.
Which of the following is a zoonosisA) molluscum contagiosum
B) chickenpox
C) cowpox
D) erythema infectiosum
E) smallpox
C) cowpox
A teenager shows up at a clinic with lesions on his face. The sores are raised, light-colored bumps with a waxy texture. A few similar lesions are present on the torso as well. With which of the following viruses might he be infectedA) human herpesvirus 1
B) B19 virus
C) human herpesvirus 4
D) molluscum contagiosum
E) papillomavirus
D) molluscum contagiosum
Which of the following families of DNA viruses is the most prevalent in humansA) Poxviridae
B) Herpesviridae
C) Adenoviridae
D) Polyomaviridae
E) Rhinoviridae
B) Herpesviridae
Which of the following herpesviruses was discovered firstA) Simplexvirus
B) Varicellovirus
C) Cytomegalovirus
D) Roseolovirus
E) HHV-8
A) Simplexvirus
An older adult is complaining of an intensely painful rash that has appeared as a patch on one side of his chest. This description is consistent with
A) chickenpox.
B) roseola.
C) shingles.
D) smallpox.
E) whitlow.
C) shingles.
Which of the following human herpesvirus infections is associated with a 30—80% fatality rateA) oral herpes
B) genital herpes
C) neonatal herpes
D) ocular herpes
E) whitlow
C) neonatal herpes
Characteristic features of the herpesvirus used for diagnosis include
A) the presence of recurring lesions in the lip or genital regions.
B) the presence of syncytia in infected tissue.
C) the presence of recurring lesions in the lip or genital regions and syncytia in infected tissue.
D) the ability of the virus to be transmitted to neonates.
E) the presence of viruses intracellularly years after recovery from the infection.
C) the presence of recurring lesions in the lip or genital regions and syncytia in infected tissue.
Shingles, or herpes zoster, is caused by the virus that also causes
A) cold sores.
B) chickenpox.
C) smallpox.
D) molluscum contagiosum.
E) warts.
B) chickenpox.
Human herpesvirus 4 is implicated in which of the following diseases?
A) Burkitt’s lymphoma
B) cervical cancer
C) oral hairy leukoplakia
D) chronic fatigue syndrome
E) Burkitt’s lymphoma, chronic fatigue syndrome, and oral hairy leukoplakia
E) Burkitt’s lymphoma, chronic fatigue syndrome, and oral hairy leukoplakia
What is the most prevalent viral infection seen in neonatesA) human herpesvirus 1
B) human herpesvirus 2
C) human herpesvirus 4
D) varicella-zoster virus
E) cytomegalovirus
E) cytomegalovirus
Where does human herpesvirus 4 become latentA) in the dorsal root ganglion
B) in B lymphocytes
C) in cytotoxic T lymphocytes
D) in brachial ganglia
E) in oligodendrocytes
B) in B lymphocytes
Which of the following statements concerning genital warts is FALSEA) They can be transmitted via fomites.
B) They can travel to different locations on the same individual by autoinoculation.
C) They can be sexually transmitted.
D) The virus may remain latent in neighboring cells and cause lesions at a later time.
E) The incidence is relatively low because treatment is available.
E) The incidence is relatively low because treatment is available.
Pinkeye is caused by
A) human herpesvirus 7.
B) a polyomavirus.
C) an adenovirus.
D) a poxvirus.
E) human herpesvirus 4.
C) an adenovirus.
Which of the following statements about the polyoma JC virus is TRUEA) Its name comes from the initials of the scientist who discovered it.
B) It is rarely found in humans.
C) Latent infections always develop.
D) It infects only the oligodendrocytes of the brain.
E) It can cause a rare disease known as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.
E) It can cause a rare disease known as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.
Which of the following viruses is made of icosahedral capsids and infects liver cellsA) hepadnaviruses
B) herpesviruses
C) polyomaviruses
D) poxviruses
E) adenoviruses
A) hepadnaviruses
Adenoviruses infect
A) the digestive tract.
B) the respiratory tract.
C) the nervous system.
D) both the digestive tract and the respiratory tract.
E) both the respiratory tract and the nervous system.
D) both the digestive tract and the respiratory tract.
A young man goes to a clinic complaining of discomfort in his foot, especially when standing. Upon examination, the clinician observes raised bumps with rough surfaces on the sole of his foot. These lesions are consistent with
A) whitlow.
B) erythema infectiosum.
C) molluscum contagiosum.
D) shingles.
E) warts.
E) warts.
Which of the following is the only DNA virus that can cause viral hepatitisA) hepatitis A virus
B) hepatitis B virus
C) hepatitis C virus
D) hepatitis D virus
E) hepatitis E virus
B) hepatitis B virus
Gamma interferon is sometimes used to treat infections with
A) adenoviruses.
B) herpesviruses.
C) poxviruses.
D) parvoviruses.
E) both herpesviruses and poxviruses.
A) adenoviruses.
Which of the following increases the risk of permanent liver damage with hepatitis B infectionA) coinfection with human herpesvirus 4
B) coinfection with hepatitis D virus
C) coinfection with HHV-6
D) coinfection with human herpesvirus 4 and hepatitis D virus
E) coinfection with hepatitis D virus and HHV-6
B) coinfection with hepatitis D virus
Hepatitis B virus releases a large amount of viral antigen, which benefits the patient by
A) producing a stronger cellular immune response.
B) activating humoral immunity.
C) making it easier to develop a vaccine.
D) allowing for better treatment.
E) ensuring plentiful substrate for binding with labeled antibodies in diagnostic tests.
E) ensuring plentiful substrate for binding with labeled antibodies in diagnostic tests.
Which of the following statements concerning the hepatitis B vaccine is FALSEA) It must be given in three doses.
B) It is protective against the virus in 95% of vaccinated individuals.
C) It is recommended for high-risk groups.
D) It must be repeated every five years.
E) Immunity can last at least 23 years and may be for life.
D) It must be repeated every five years.
Which of the following statements regarding the association of hepatitis B with liver cancer is FALSEA) Geographic areas with a high incidence of liver cancer also have a high prevalence of hepatitis B.
B) The HBV genome has been found integrated into hepatic cancer cells.
C) Hepatic cancer cells typically express HBV antigen.
D) Chronic carriers of the virus are 200 times more likely to develop hepatic cancer.
E) Vaccination does not provide protection against the development of hepatic cancer.
E) Vaccination does not provide protection against the development of hepatic cancer.
Which of the following viruses are the only ssDNA viruses that cause disease in humansA) Parvoviridae
B) Hepadnaviridae
C) Poxviridae
D) Polyomaviridae
E) Herpesviridae
A) Parvoviridae
Which of the following viruses is responsible for “fifth disease”A) adenoviruses
B) human herpesvirus 1
C) varicella
D) human herpesvirus 4
E) B19 virus
E) B19 virus
A scientist discovers a new virus that causes mild respiratory disease in humans. He is able to isolate, purify, and characterize the virus. The virus preparation contains double-stranded DNA and no lipid. In which of the following virus families does this new virus likely belongA) Adenoviridae
B) Herpesviridae
C) Papillomarviridae
D) Herpesviridae or Poxviridae
E) Adenoviridae or Papillomaviridae
A) Adenoviridae
The large size of poxviruses allows them to
A) be easily isolated in infected cells.
B) attach to both animal and human cells.
C) provoke a strong immune response in the host.
D) travel in droplets.
E) be potential vectors for introduction of genetic material in vaccinations for gene therapy.
E) be potential vectors for introduction of genetic material in vaccinations for gene therapy.
Which of the following viruses exist only in laboratory stocksA) smallpox
B) cowpox
C) vaccinia
D) varicella
E) erythrovirus
A) smallpox
Which of the following viruses is oncogenicA) adenovirus
B) human herpesvirus 4
C) papillomavirus
D) both human herpesvirus 4 and papillomavirus
E) adenovirus, human herpesvirus 4, and papillomavirus
D) both human herpesvirus 4 and papillomavirus
Syncytium between infected and noninfected cells
Human herpesvirus
Large B lymphocytes with atypical nuclei and neutropenia
Human herpesvirus 4
Abnormally large cells with nuclear inclusions
Cytomegalovirus
Pustules
Poxviruses
Dane particles
Hepatitis B virus
“Kissing disease”
Human herpesvirus 4
Pinkeye
Adenoviruses
Condylomata acuminata
Papillomaviruses
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PLM)
Polyomaviruses
Erythema infectiosum
Parvoviruses
Chickenpox was so named because it was first found in chickens. True/False
F
Erythema infectiosum is a dangerous but treatable disease. True/False
F
Human herpesviruses have been designated by combining HHV (human herpesvirus) with numbers corresponding to the severity of the diseases they cause. True/False
F
Contact with a minute quantity of blood is sufficient for infection with hepatitis B virus. True/False
T
For protection from infection with genital herpes, condoms need to be used only when there is an active lesion. True/False
F
Human herpesvirus 4 has been implicated as an etiological agent in some cases of Hodgkin’s lymphoma. True/False
T
The cytomegalovirus may be teratogenic if the virus infects stem cells in an embryo or fetus. True/False
T
Everyone appears to be infected with polyomaviruses BK and JC by the age of 15. True/False
T
Adenoviruses are so named because they infect only adenoid cells in humans. True/False
F
Immunization with ________ will provide protection against smallpox.
cowpox
Painful, blister-like lesions that progressively become filled with pus suggest infection with a(n) ________.
poxvirus
________ is usually associated with lesions on the genitalia.
Human herpesvirus 2
An inflamed blister on the finger caused by either HHV-1 or HHV-2 is known as ________.
whitlow
The condition in which athletes develop herpes lesions on their skin as a result of coming in contact with herpes lesions during wrestling is known as ________.
herpes gladiatorum
Skin lesions described as “dewdrops on rose petals” are characteristic of ________.
chickenpox
Individuals who have had chickenpox may develop ________ later in life if they are exposed to stress or immune suppression.
shingles
Aspirin should never be given to children or young adults who have symptoms of viral infection because of the possible risk of developing ________.
Reye’s syndrome
In infections with ________, the virus becomes latent in B lymphocytes and suppresses apoptosis, thus providing one source of lymphomas associated with this virus.
human herpesvirus 4
The autoimmune disease ________ may result from infection with human herpesvirus 6.
multiple sclerosis
Cytomegalovirus can be ________ if it infects fetal stem cells.
teratogenic
The cauliflower-like growths on the genitalia caused by papillomaviruses are known as ________.
condylomata acuminata
The search for cancer-causing viruses led scientists to discover a group of viruses called ________ that are capable of causing several different types of tumors in humans.
Polyomaviridae
Hepatitis B virus replicates in liver cells and is released by ________ rather than cell lysis.
exocytosis
Disease caused by B19 virus is known as ________, or erythema infectiosum.
fifth disease
Compare and contrast the oncogenic viruses human herpesvirus 4 (Epstein-Barr virus) and hepatitis B virus (HBV).
HHV-4 infects B-lymphocytes and is primarily associated with lymphomas, although it is also associated with nasopharyngeal cancer. HBV infects hepatocytes and has been shown to be associated with hepatic cancer based on a large amount of evidence.
Both oncogenic viruses are DNA viruses with an envelope, and both can establish chronic infections. However, the chronic infection with HHV-6 is a latent infection, whereas chronic hepatitis B virus infections are productive. The DNA of both viruses can be detected in the nuclei of infected cells and may integrate into the host genome. Both infections appear to require cofactors for the development of cancer.
HHV-6 is a member of the herpesvirus family, a group of viruses known to be capable of integrating into the host genome. However, the high prevalence of the virus in the human population, coupled with the relative rarity of the associated cancers, suggests that additional factors are involved in triggering the development of cancer. The cofactors for HHV-4 oncogenicity have not been identified with certainty, but they may be environmental factors, such as exposure to malaria antigens.
The HBV genome has been shown to be capable of integration into the host genome. Viral integration often disrupts normal function or expression of the genes in the vicinity of the site of integration. Integration alone may be sufficient to trigger progression to cancer. However, the observation that not all chronic HBV infections result in hepatic cancer suggests that other factors may be involved or contribute to the development of cancer.
A patient is brought into the ER in a coma. Upon inspection, the physician sees evidence of many new tattoos, as well as yellowing of the skin and eyes. What is the most likely cause of the patient’s condition?
The patient is suffering from viral hepatitis. The yellow discoloration of the skin and eyes is a condition called jaundice that is seen when a waste product called bilirubin accumulates in the blood. This is indicative of severe liver damage, as is his state of coma. Because he has had many recent tattoos, the most likely causative agent is human hepatitis B virus, which he probably contracted through the use of contaminated materials during the tattooing.
A child is suffering from a fever and has reddish cheeks, arms, and thighs. The rash intensifies upon exposure to the sun. What is the likely infectious agent?
The child is probably infected with B19 virus. The absence of sore throat and swollen lymph nodes rules out HHV-6. Also, the rash of HHV-6 is pinkish rather than red. The aggravation of the rash by sunlight is also consistent with fifth disease (one of the names for disease caused by B19 virus). The appearance of the rash is also not consistent with HHV-3 infection (chickenpox), in which the rash is spotty and progresses to vesicles. The absence of symptoms other than fever and rash largely rules out other childhood illnesses that produce a rash.
A four-year-old with a history of cold symptoms for two days visits the doctor. On examination, the doctor notices “dewdrops on a rose petal” lesions over the child’s back. What is the child suffering from? What are the potential long-term consequences of this infection?
The child has a typical case of chickenpox. This virus can become latent within sensory nerves and remain dormant for years. In about 15% of patients who have chickenpox, stress, aging, or immune suppression causes the virus to travel down the nerves they inhabit and produce an extremely painful rash near the distal end of the nerve, known as shingles or herpes zoster.
What is a significant consideration in treating viral infections in children?
Although fevers can be very high in viral infections, aspirin should never be used to treat them in children and young adults because it can cause Reye’s syndrome. The few antiviral medications available are highly specific for one virus or a few closely related viruses. Most are self-limiting and require no treatment other than the relief of symptoms.

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