micro

The fusion of two gametes produces a
A) zygote
B) chromatid
C) schizont
D) centromere
E) merozoite
A) zygote
Replication of the DNA occurs during
A) prophase
B) metaphase
C) interphase
D) anaphase
E) telophase
C) interphase
Sister chromatids separate and move toward the poles of the cell during _____ of mitosis.
A) interphase
B) anaphase
C) prophase
D) telophase
E) metaphase
B) anaphase
An aligned pair of homologous chromosomes is called a
A) spindle
B) chromatid
C) gamete
D) tetrad
E) coenocyte
D) tetrad
Which of the following pairs is mismatchedA) plants: usually diploid
B) animals: usually diploid
C) fungi: usually diploid
D) protozoa: usually diploid
E) algae: usually haploid
C) fungi: usually diploid
Sister chromatids separate during _____ of meiosis.
A) anaphase II
B) telophase I
C) prophase II
D) metaphase II
E) anaphase I
A) anaphase II
Which of the following statements regarding meiosis is most accurateA) Homologous (non-sister) chromatids separate during anaphase II
B) Meiosis has the same number of stages as mitosis
C) Haploid cells produce diploid cells
D) A diploid cell produces haploid daughter cells
E) Crossing over occurs during metaphase I
D) A diploid cell produces haploid daughter cells
Merozoites are a result of
A) meiosis
B) crossing over
C) schizogony
D) mitosis
E) conjugation
C) schizogony
Which of the following is mismatchedA) Entamoeba: pseudopodia
B) Euglena: flagellum
C) Plasmodium: merozoites
D) Paramecium: two nuclei
E) Toxoplasma: cilia
E) Toxoplasma: cilia
Which of the following is a protozoan stage that allows for transmission of intestinal parasites from one host to anotherA) cyst
B) kinetoplast
C) schizont
D) foraminifera
E) merozoite
A) cyst
Candida albicans invades human tissues by the use of
A) pseudohyphae
B) hyphae
C) thalli
D) mycelia
E) coenocytes
A) pseudohyphae
The _____ is the entire interwoven mass of one multicellular fungal organism.
A) pseudoplasmodium
B) mycelium
C) conidiophore
D) sporangium
E) hyphae
B) mycelium
Which of the following is classified among the AlveolatesA) Foraminifera
B) Paramecium and Foraminifera
C) Plasmodium
D) Paramecium
E) Paramecium and Plasmodium
E) Paramecium and Plasmodium
Which of the following types of protozoa are bioluminescentA) ciliates
B) amoebae
C) kinetoplastids
D) apicomplexans
E) dinoflagellates
E) dinoflagellates
Plankton is composed of which of the following types of eukaryotic microbesA) algae
B) protozoa
C) fungi
D) both algae and protozoa
E) both fungi and algae
D) both algae and protozoa
Conjugation is a reproductive process associated with which of the following types of protozoaA) dinoflagellates
B) amoebae
C) ciliates
D) parabasalids
E) kinetoplastids
C) ciliates
Which of the following types of protozoa contributes to limestone formation in their fossilized stateA) foraminiferans
B) diplomonads
C) amoebae
D) euglenozoa
E) ciliates
A) foraminiferans
The asexual spores of molds are classified according to their
A) size
B) mode of development
C) type of metabolism
D) shapes
E) number of chromosomes
B) mode of development
Which of the following is a cell type associated with sexual reproduction in fungiA) dikaryon
B) mycorrhiza
C) pneumocyst
D) sporangiospore
E) haustoria
A) dikaryon
The first eukaryote to have its entire genome sequenced was the fungus
A) Cryptococcus
B) Neurospora
C) Candida albicans
D) Saccharomyces
E) Rhizopus
D) Saccharomyces
Parasitology is the study of
A) helminths
B) fungi
C) algae
D) protozoa
E) both helminths and protozoa
E) both helminths and protozoa
Which of the following is a dinoflagellate whose toxin causes possible estuary-associated syndrome (PEAS)A) Gymnodinium
B) Balatidium
C) Toxoplasma
D) Pfiesteria
E) Gonyaulax
D) Pfiesteria
The large seaweed known as kelp is classified as a member of the
A) Chrysophyta
B) Chlorophyta
C) Rhodophyta
D) Phaeophyta
E) Deuteromycete
D) Phaeophyta
Hyphae are associated with which of the followingA) yeasts
B) protozoa
C) molds
D) algae
E) helminths
C) molds
Most of the fungi that spoil food belong to the division
A) Basidiomycota
B) Rhodophyta
C) Ascomycota
D) Deuteromycetes
E) Zygomycota
C) Ascomycota
Lichens are composed of a symbiosis of fungi and which of the followingA) cyanobacteria
B) cyanobacteria or green algae
C) green algae
D) euglenoids
E) euglenoids or dinoflagellates
B) cyanobacteria or green algae
A plasmodium is a coenocytic structure associated with
A) water molds
B) yeast
C) amoebae
D) slime molds
E) green algae
D) slime molds
The division of Basidiomycota includes which of the following types of fungiA) truffles
B) ringworm
C) bread mold
D) mushrooms
E) baker’s yeast
D) mushrooms
The roots of vascular plants from associations with fungi called _____, which allow them to absorb water and dissolved minerals from the soil.
A) thalli
B) mycoses
C) mycorrhizae
D) lichens
E) hyphae
C) mycorrhizae
Which of the following protozoan genera helps termites digest woodA) Trichonympha
B) Naegleria
C) Trichomonas
D) Pfiesteria
E) Nosema
A) Trichonympha
In a cell that has a diploid number of 8 chromosomes, how many chromatids will be present at the beginning of mitosisA) 8
B) 4
C) 16
D) 32
E) 2
C) 16
Which of the following is composed of microtubulesA) a coenocyte
B) a tetrad
C) a spindle
D) a zygote
E) a chromatid
C) a spindle
Which of the following would be virtually indistinguishable under the microscopeA) late anaphase and early telophase
B) early prophase and early metaphase
C) late metaphase and early telophase
D) early metaphase and early anaphase
E) early anaphase and late anaphase
A) late anaphase and early telophase
When mitosis occurs without cytokinesis, which of the following is producedA) merozoites
B) cysts
C) coenocytes
D) chromatids
E) macronuclei
C) coenocytes
_____ is the stage of mitosis in which chromatids move toward opposite poles.
A) interphase
B) telophase
C) metaphase
D) prophase
E) anaphase
E) anaphase
The nuclear membrane disintegrates during _____ of mitosis.
A) cytokinesis
B) telophase
C) anaphase
D) metaphase
E) prophase
E) prophase
The chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell during
A) telophase
B) metaphase
C) prophase II
D) anaphase
E) prophase
B) metaphase
The process of cytokinesis may occur during
A) prophase
B) metaphase
C) telophase
D) interphase
E) anaphase
C) telophase
During mitotic _____, the spindle forms.
A) metaphase
B) interphase
C) anaphase
D) telophase
E) prophase
E) prophase
Organisms known as diatoms are classified with the
A) protozoa
B) helminths
C) water molds
D) algae
E) fungi
D) algae
The _____ include organisms classified ad Deuteromycetes.
A) arachnids
B) algae
C) protozoa
D) fungi
E) water molds
D) fungi
Single-celled organisms called ciliates are
A) insects
B) protozoa
C) algae
D) water molds
E) fungi
B) protozoa
Ascomycetes are members of the
A) fungi
B) protozoa
C) helminths
D) algae
E) arachnids
A) fungi
The kelps are classified as
A) arachnids
B) fungi
C) algae
D) protozoa
E) water molds
C) algae
Fungi reproduce only asexually.
F
Haploid genomes contain two sets of chromosomes
F
Protozoa are eukaryotic organisms that lack a cell wall and can be unicellular or multicellular.
F
In fungi, aseptate hyphae are coenocytic by definition.
T
Diseases of animals caused by fungi are called mycoses.
T
Myxamoebae act like protozoan amoebae only in the absence of water.
T
Chromatids move toward opposite poles
A) Anaphase
B) Telophase
C) Metaphase
D) Prophase
Anaphase
Disintegration of the nuclear membrane
A) Anaphase
B) Telophase
C) Metaphase
D) Prophase
Prophase
Disintegration of the nuclear membrane
A) Anaphase
B) Telophase
C) Metaphase
D) Prophase
Prophase
Chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell
A) Anaphase
B) Telophase
C) Metaphase
D) Prophase
Metaphase
Cytokinesis may occur
A) Anaphase
B) Telophase
C) Metaphase
D) Prophase
Telophase
The spindle forms
A) Anaphase
B) Telophase
C) Metaphase
D) Prophase
Prophase
Diatoms
A) Algae
B) Fungi
C) Protozoa
Algae
Deuteromycetes
A) Algae
B) Fungi
C) Protozoa
Fungi
Ciliates
A) Algae
B) Fungi
C) Protozoa
Protozoa
Ascomycetes
A) Algae
B) Fungi
C) Protozoa
Fungi
Kelps
A) Algae
B) Fungi
C) Protozoa
Algae
The fever and chills associated with malaria are due to the release of uninucleate daughter cells of
Plasmodium called ________.
merozoites
The vegetative stage of a protozoan is called a ________.
trophozoite
Some protozoa protect themselves from the adverse effects of osmosis by the use of ________ to pump out excess water.
contractile vacuoles
________ are protozoa that move and feed by the use of pseudopodia.
Amoebae
The ________ are protozoa that produce cell walls composed of silica
Radiolaria
________ are the asexual reproductive spores produced at the tips of hyphae.
Conidiospores
Fungi and insects both use the nitrogenous polysaccharide ________ as a protective molecule in their outer surfaces.
chitin
Organisms such as fungi that absorb nutrients from dead organisms are called ________.
saprobes
________ are modified hyphae that allow fungi to derive nutrients from other living organisms.
Haustoria
________ is the study of algae.
Phycology
Lichens spread to new areas by the use of multicellular fragments called ________.
soredia
Multicellular algae often reproduce sexually by means of haploid and diploid individuals in a process called
________.
alternation of generations
Microbiologists interested in parasitism study the multicellular ________ as well as single-celled protozoa
parasitic worms
The two halves of a diatom’s cell wall, called ________, fit together like a Petri dish.
frustules
Ticks, lice, and mosquitoes often serve as ________ by carrying and transmitting pathogenic microbes.
vectors
Compare and contrast slime molds and water molds.
Both the slime molds and the water molds are saprobes, and neither of them are fungi, as the names
would suggest. In spite of the similarity of names, however, these organisms are more different than
they are similar.
Slime molds are classified among the protozoa (Amoebozoa). They are phagocytic saprobes without
cell walls and occur in two forms: plasmodial and cellular.
The plasmodial coenocytic slime molds are diploid under normal conditions, but under adverse
conditions they produce haploid spores that can germinate to produce a unicellular form
(myxamoeba) that uses flagella or pseudopodia for motility, depending on conditions. Two
compatible myxamoebae fuse to form a new diploid, which, in turn, becomes a new coenocytic
plasmodium.
The cellular slime molds are haploid. Under ideal conditions, the cellular slime molds live as
single-celled organisms (myxamoebae). When food becomes scarce, the myxamoebae congregate and
cooperate to form a sporangium, and some individuals then become spores. No diploidy or meiosis is
involved.
The water molds are classified with the algae (Stramenophila), but they do not carry out
photosynthesis. They are diploid saprobes with cell walls of cellulose. Their spores are motile by
means of two flagella, which are structurally different. Some water molds are plant pathogens.
Discuss the range of pathogenicity associated with eukaryotic microbes
Some eukaryotic microbes are routinely pathogenic for humans or other hosts, whereas others are
completely free-living and nonpathogenic. (It should be noted, however, that the majority of
eukaryotic microbes are nonpathogenic for humans.) Probably the most nonpathogenic group is the
algae, which, because they are photosynthetic, do not have to rely on the tissues of a host for their
nutrients. Fungi exhibit a moderate level of pathogenicity; about 30% of fungal species can produce
diseases (mycoses) in a variety of organisms, including humans. Many of these pathogenic fungi exist
in two forms, a condition known as dimorphism. As a group, the protozoa exhibit the most striking
instances of pathogenicity. However, this is not due solely to their nutritional requirements; like the
fungi, protozoa are largely chemoheterotrophic. Protozoa are often pathogenic because they need
moist, protected habitats because they lack a cell wall. Living in the tissues of a host allows protozoa to meet this requirement.

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