chapters 6-10.5

mycoplasma group
no cell wall****
irregular cell shape
associated w/ animals,plants-none free-living ,
sterols in cell membrane ****,
stains gram-neg because no cell wall, but is gram-pos*
mycoplasma pneumoniae
common respiratory infection in children
pneumonia, progresses to meningitis, encephalitis,
smallest genomes of living organisms
clostridium group
anaerobic spore-forming rods
clostridium tetani
causes tenanus (jawlock, disease of nervous system),
component of herbivore intestines,
found in manure, soil
unclean delievery kits—-> neonatal tetanus(baby),
produces exotoxins (immunized against),
tetanospasmin component is neurotoxic,

symptoms: jawlock, stiff neck, muscle ridgity,

higher in intestines of autistic children

clostridium botulinum
component of herbivore intestines,
contamination of meats & canned products (botulism),
actue diarrhea, cramps,

botulinum exotoxin is also neurotoxic,

botox (Botulinum toxin A) combats wrinkles, migranes, uncoordinated eyes

colustridium difficile
causes pseudomembranous colitis,

AAD-antibiotic associated diarrhea,
antibiotic treatment associated imbalance of intestinal microbes in hosptialized pts.
fever, diarrhea, cramps, foul stool odor,
elderly pts at higher risk,

treatment: fecal transplantation successfully cures c.diff

Bacillus group
aerobic or facilitative anerobic,
spore-forming rods
bacillus anthracis
causes anthrax,
present in wildlife & farm animals,
sheep sheearing, goat skin processing in high risk
rare cases w/ animal skin african drums,

anthrax exotoxin,
nitric oxide production affects immune response (neurotransmitter),

cutaneous anthrax
through skin contract, abrasions,
would deveops black center
inhalation anthrax
(pulmonary, terrorist form),

fever, pheumonia, breathing difficulties, shock, disorrientation,

100% untreated fatality rate

ingestion anthrax
from food contaminated w/ spores,
severe diarrhea, vomitting, blood in stool

25-60% untreated fatility rate

lactobacillus group
non spore
lactobacillus acidophilus,
found in milk,
present in intestines and vagina,

lactobacilii used to make buttermilk, yogurt, cheese, pickles,

probiotic during anticiotic therapy & to control yeast infections

staphylococcus aureus
irregular clusters of cocci,
residents of skin, nares
skin & wound infections (post-op),
food poisioning-mild gastroenteritis,
one of the organisms that causes toxic shock(peeling skin),
many strains antibiotic resistant,
(MRSA-methicillin-resistant staphlococcus aureus, VRSA)
streptococcus pneumonia
present in upper respiratory tract,
pneumonia, meningitis,

pneumovax-vaccine against 23 types of capsule ( > 60 yrs old),

prevnar: vaccine against 13 types for children ( < 2 yrs)

listeria monocytogenes
unpasteurized milk products, cheese, presevred meats,

lactobacillus controls listeria in cheese,


intracellular organism, grows in monocytes, hides in gall bladder,
upon entry to cell, interferes w/ cellular stress response,

high risk: elderly, pregnancy immune prob,

fever, muscle ache, nausea, diarrhea, meningitis,septicema, miscarriages, pre-term labor

mycobacterium group
acid-fast staining rods,
mycolic acid in cell wall
mycobacterium tuberculosis
causes tuberculosis (respiratory infection),
spread through aerosols, requires prolonged contact,

fever, wt loss, fatigue, cough, blood in sputum,

drug resistant cases-espc. Eastern Europe,
acid fast stains, chest xray, trained APOPO rats,
new test to detect MDR, XDR, TB

mycobacterium leprae
causes leprosy ( infection of nervous system),
requires prolonged contact,
organism intracellular in neurons,
minor discoloartion of the skin,
loss of senstation (fingers get short-dont fall off though),

**cant be grown in vitro,
curable only in early stage

aerobic eukaryotes,
yeast, mushrooms, mold, mildew, rot,
found in soil, water, leaf/fruit surfaces,
saprophytic:live on dead organic matter,
some pathogenic to plants, animals,
produce brightly colored spores,
some fungi grow in a filamentous form
individual filaments
what fungi grows as single cells
some yeasts can switch between a yeast & pseudopyhal form
Agaricus sp.
common cultivated mushroom,
white is a mutant variety of portobello & crimini
ustilago maydis
a plant pathogen–corn smut fungus,
mushroom like flavor,
amanita phalloides
death cap fungus,
extreamly poisionous,
resembles many edible mushrooms
amanita muscaria
fly agaric,
mildly hallucinogenic,
used by vikings & siberians to develop a red complex. before war
claviceps purporea
infects ry & other cereals,
cold winters, warm rainy spring,
produces a hallucinogen ergotamine,
prescribed for migranes & post natal bleeding
candida albicans
dimorphic yeast–>causes candidiasis (thrush-mouth),
vaginal, oral, neonatal,
invasive form–>meningitis,
immune problems, loss of resident bacteria,

very few antifungla antibiotics

saccharomyces cerevisiae
brewers & bakers yeast,
sugar——> ethanol + CO2,
some strains dimorphic, pathogenic to humans,

white powerdery coating on grapes is yeast —->wine

pneumocystis carinii,
(pneumocytis jirovecii)
pneumonia in immune compromised pts (immunosuppresive drugs),
fever, non-productive cough, breathing difficulty, wt loss,

aides pts.

epidermophyton & realitives


skin & hair infections,
athletes foot, ring worm,

itchy, scaly skin in moist areas of body

aspergillus flavus
contaminates peanuts, grains stored under humid conditions,
potent toxin–>aflatoxin—>causes liver disease & cancer,

may cause invasive lung infection

penicillium chysogenum
commercial production,
penicillian family of antibiotics
penicillium roqueforti,
penicillium camemberii
production of soft & blue cheeses
histoplasma capsulation
dimorphic fungus–>yeast form in tisssues,
histoplasmosis–>firm contaminated bird,bath droppings,

epidemic in ohio river valley,

fever, flu like symptoms, chest pain, can be invasive or cause skin lesions (simular to TB

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